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Tramadol is a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic and SNRI (serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake-inhibitor) that is structurally related to codeine and morphine. Due to its good tolerability profile and multimodal mechanism of action, tramadol is generally considered a lower-risk opioid option for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. It is considered a Step 2 option on the World Health Organization's pain ladder and has about 1/10th of the potency of morphine.
Tramadol differs from other traditional opioid medications in that it doesn't just act as a μ-opioid agonist, but also affects monoamines by modulating the effects of neurotransmitters involved in the modulation of pain such as serotonin and norepinpehrine which activate descending pain inhibitory pathways.13 Tramadol's effects on serotonin and norepinephrine mimic the effects of other SNRI antidepressants such as duloxetine and venlafaxine.
Tramadol exists as a racemic mixture consisting of two pharmacologically active enantiomers that both contribute to its analgesic property through different mechanisms and are also themselves metabolized into active metabolites: (+)-tramadol and its primary metabolite (+)-O-desmethyl-tramadol (M1) are agonists of the μ opioid receptor while (+)-tramadol inhibits serotonin reuptake and (-)-tramadol inhibits norepinephrine reuptake. These pathways are complementary and synergistic, improving tramadol's ability to modulate the perception of and response to pain.12,25
Tramadol has also been shown to affect a number of other pain modulators within the central nervous system as well as non-neuronal inflammatory markers and immune mediators.17,18,20,26,16 Due to the broad spectrum of targets involved in pain and inflammation, it's not surprising that the evidence has shown that tramadol is effective for a number of pain types including neuropathic pain, post-operative pain, lower back pain, as well as pain associated with labour, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer. Due to its SNRI activity, tramadol also has anxiolytic, antidepressant, and anti-shivering effects which are all frequently found as comorbidities with pain.16
Similar to other opioid medications, tramadol poses a risk for development of tolerance, dependence and abuse. If used in higher doses, or with other opioids, there is a dose-related risk of overdose, respiratory depression, and death.22,30 However, unlike other opioid medications, tramadol use also carries a risk of seizure and serotonin syndrome, particularly if used with other serotonergic medications.23,24
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Moq : 10g
Brand name Ultram
Packaging info: Package:1kg-5kg/aluminum foil bag, different colors as you like.
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*: Alprazolam (2)
Alprazolam is a potent, short-acting benzodiazepine that impacts the central nervous system to produce a calming effect. It is mostly used for the treatment of anxiety and panic disorders.
Increase in geriatric population prone to depression and surge in prevalence of anxiety disorders, including phobias and generalized anxiety disorders, drive the Alprazolam powder market. Furthermore, the fast paced and stressful lifestyle leading to depression fuels the market growth. In addition, R&D activities on Alprazolam are anticipated to create new opportunities during the forecast period. However, stringent government regulations and adverse drug effects, such as drug addiction, hamper the growth. For instance, according to the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) report, the estimated number of drug-related visits to hospital emergency departments has increased from 57,419 visits in 2005 to 124,902 visits in 2010. Moreover, the gray market of Alprazolam restricts the market growth. For instance, in 2016, 9 people were killed in 3 months in Florida due to fake Xanaz pill (Alprazolam drug).
The Alprazolam powder market is segmented on the basis of application, end user, and geography. Based on application, it is divided into panic disorders, anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Based on end user, it is classified into research institutes, pharmaceutical companies, and others (hospitals and clinics). Geographically, it is analyzed across North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA.
Xanax, Niravam, Xanax XR
Colour: white crystalline powder,
CAS Number: 112393-64-3) |
Synonyms for alprazolam
alpha-Hydroxyalprazolam 37115-43-8 UNII-V7J2Z5Y50U 4H-[1,2,4]Triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-1-methanol,8-chloro-6-phenyl- V7J2Z5Y50U
Product name ( 3)
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid activity. It is used in the treatment of severe anxiety disorders, as a hypnotic in the short-term management of insomnia, as a sedative and premedicant, as an anticonvulsant, and in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p589)
Given diazepam's storied history as a commonly used and effective medication for a variety of indications, contemporary advancements in the formulation and administration of the agent include the development and US FDA approval of an auto-injectable formulation for the rapid treatment of uncontrolled seizures in 2015-2016 7. Combining diazepam, a proven effective therapy for acute repetitive seizures, with an auto-injector designed for subcutaneous administration that is quickly and easily administered offers the potential for complete, consistent drug absorption and rapid onset of effect 7. This current development is subsequently an important addition to the rescue therapy tool chest for patients with epilepsy 7.
Valium - creates a relaxant effect on skeletal muscles. Valium acts by enhancing the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. GABA is a neurotransmitter that inhibits activity in the brain. Excessive brain activity may lead to anxiety and other psychiatric disorders.
FOB price :
6750 $ /kg
Moq / 340$
Product name 4)
Flualprazolam is a type of benzodiazepine that is very similar to alprazolam (Xanax). However,unlike alprazolam, flualprazolam has chlorine and fluorine, not just chlorine. Flualprazolam is a very new research chemical and has only been on the market since 2017. Because Flualprazolam is so similar to alprazolam, many of the results of chemical research for the two substances are similar.
These findings have often been associated with sedation, anti-convulsion, muscle relaxation, amnesic results, and calmness. The results associated with flualprazolam are considered to be stronger than alprazolam, but not as intense as Clonazepam (Klonopin).
Brand name : NPS benzodiazepines